COP Course Descriptions

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Clinical & Administrative Sciences (CAS)

CAS 606 Biostatistics and Pharmacoepidemiology (3 cr)

This course is designed to introduce major concepts in biostatistics and pharmacoepidemiology. Students will develop the ability to interpret and critically evaluate medical literature and to identify findings that have implications for their practice. Emphasis will be placed on an examination of how observational study designs draw upon epidemiologic techniques to address drug effectiveness, safety, outcome assessment and regulatory decision making. Students will also acquire skills in applying statistical analysis concepts learned throughout this course with the use of common computer software. (Prerequisite: none) Formerly PHAR 634

CAS 608 Introduction to Clinical Topics (4 cr)

Self-Care is an interactive course designed to introduce a systematic approach for evaluating a patient’s self-care needs, including assessing, triaging and making appropriate treatment recommendations. This course also provides an introduction to over-the-counter medications used for self- treating common medical conditions in the community and ambulatory care settings. Selected prescription products in smoking cessation and ophthalmic disorders will be discussed. Students will be expected to understand how and why obtaining a comprehensive patient history is necessary to objectively recommend appropriate over-the-counter medications that are safe and effective. Students will begin to appreciate the role of a pharmacist and how educating and empowering patients is a cornerstone in community and ambulatory care pharmacy practice. (Prerequisites: IPP607, PRC609) Formerly PHAR 641

CAS 702 Communications (2 cr)

The course is designed to teach student pharmacists the skills and techniques necessary to have productive communication encounters with patients and healthcare professionals using verbal and non-verbal skills. Utilizing techniques that evolve around oral and written communication, the students will begin to develop the skills necessary to conduct effective patient interviewing/counseling encounters, initiate problem solving & conflict management techniques, and expand their awareness regarding cultural competence and health literacy. (Prerequisite: none) Formerly PHAR 712

CAS 703 Drug Literature Evaluation & Drug Information (3 cr)

This course will provide a systematic approach to drug information and literature evaluation to formulate and implement appropriate drug therapy decisions. This includes effective searching, retrieval, evaluation and dissemination of electronic and print resources. Students will utilize skills learned in this course to effectively communicate and tailor drug information at the appropriate level for providers, other health professionals, caregivers, patients and the public. Additionally, this course will provide introductory knowledge on the state of the art in pharmacy informatics and decision support systems needed to implement patient-centered care. Students will be able to define basic terminology used inhealth informatics and describe the benefits and current constraints in using information and communication technology in health care. (Prerequisite: CAS606) Formerly PHAR 743

CAS 705 Pharmacotherapy I (6 cr)

This course will focus on the clinical foundations of pharmacotherapy, integration of pathophysiological and pharmacological mechanisms, and the pharmacotherapeutic interventions used in the management of disorders that are specific to or have a high prevalence in psychiatry or neurology. (Prerequisite: PBS602 – Co-requisite PRC 709) Formerly PHAR 575

CAS 706 Pharmacotherapy II (6 cr)

This course focuses on the development of highly skilled clinical pharmacists. Students are taught to integrate knowledge of therapeutic interventions with the pathophysiological and pharmacological mechanisms and patient specific data to optimally management cardiovascular, pulmonary, and endocrine disorders. Students will gain understanding of disease state management through the interpretation of case reports, laboratory findings, application of pharmacologic principles and evidence based guidelines. (Prerequisites: PBS701 & CAS703
– Co-requisite: PRC 710) Formerly 752

CAS 801 Pharmacy and the Health Care System (3 cr)

This course will introduce the major healthcare stakeholders and elucidate the manner by which their interests and interactions have shaped the current US healthcare financing and delivery system, and set the stage for healthcare reform. Students will learn how to use this information as a framework to identify existing and future healthcare needs, and develop potential pharmacist-driven initiatives to improve value and patient care in general. (Prerequisite: none) Formerly PHAR 811

CAS 802 Pharmacy Law and Ethics (3 cr)

This course is designed to prepare student pharmacists to identify, evaluate, and resolve the legal and ethical issues arising within the context of pharmacy practice. Upon completion, a student will have an understanding of the current regulatory environment duties and responsibilities of the Pharmacists in Charge and the standards of care to which pharmacists must adhere. Students will be able to identify, interpret and apply relevant laws and regulations within the context of pharmacy practice. (Prerequisite: IPP607) Formerly PHAR 813

CAS 804 Pharmacy Management and Economic Principles (3 cr)

In order to provide optimum care and services as a healthcare professional, pharmacists should understand the basic principles and key concepts of managerial, organizational, and financial management. Therefore, the objective of this course is to provide an opportunity for students to learn important management, organizational, accounting, marketing skills, and entrepreneurial and innovation applications for their future practice in pharmacy. The course emphasis will be focused on business planning, organization, motivation, control, and marketing as they relate to community and health system pharmacy management. This course will also provide a basic introduction of pharmacoeconomic principles and its application to improve patient outcomes. The course material will provide this introduction to students by developing skills to assist them in understanding the methods to choose a cost-effective drug therapy for patient populations in order to achieve quality clinical, economic and humanistic outcomes. A combination of classroom mini-lectures, class discussion, required readings, and in-class learning assignments will be used to facilitate the student’s understanding of these important concepts. A final team and individual capstone project will be developed to ascertain attainment of knowledge learned in the course.
(Prerequisite: CAS801) Formerely PHAR 815

CAS 805 Pharmacotherapy III (6 cr)

This course will cover the pathophysiology and treatment of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, as well as the principles of antimicrobial regimen selection and antimicrobial prophylaxis. By the end of this course the student should be able to: identify the principles of the practice of infectious diseases, identify the impact of the use of antimicrobial agents on the population, describe basic properties of common pathogenic microorganisms, list pharmacological properties of selected antimicrobial agents, identify likely pathogens responsible for a particular infectious disease process, select first line and alternative antimicrobial agents for selected disease states, and identify appropriate actions to monitor for efficacy and toxicity. To accomplish these goals, the student will be required to comprehend common microbiologic laboratory tests used to identify microorganisms. The student will be expected to know the mechanisms of action, antimicrobial spectrum, mechanisms of bacterial resistance, common adverse reactions, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics properties of antimicrobial agents discussed in course materials, and the dosing of select antimicrobials. (Prerequisites: PBS604, CAS703, & PBS803) Formerly 853

CAS 806 Pharmacotherapy IV (6 cr)

This course covers several topics of pharmacotherapy: renal, nutrition, gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders as well as hematology and oncology with a focus on patient care. The student will need to integrate physiologic, pathophysiologic, pharmacologic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, laboratory monitoring, and pharmacotherapeutic principles to assess and/or formulate disease specific pharmacotherapy care plans. The course will focus on optimizing drug therapy through the design, recommendation, implementation, monitoring, and modification of individualized pharmacotherapeutic plans using updated pharmacologic principles, clinical recommendations, and evidence based guidelines. (Prerequisite: PBS704 & CAS706 – Co-requisite: PRC 810) Formerly PHAR 856

CAS 812- Applied Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Calculations (1)

This course covers applied clinical pharmacokinetics and calculations, primarily in case-based format. Focus areas include applications of PK in critical care, antibiotics, behavioral health and antiepileptic agents, nutrition supplementation (including Total Parenteral Nutrition), pediatrics, neonatal, nutrient deficiency and excess in infants and children, as well as practical application of biostatistics, epidemiological and pharmacoeconomic measures. The student will need to integrate physiologic, pathophysiologic, pharmacologic, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetic, laboratory monitoring, and pharmacotherapeutic principles to assess and/or formulate disease specific pharmacotherapy care plans. The course will focus on optimizing drug therapy through the design, recommendation, implementation, monitoring, and modification of individualized pharmacotherapeutic plans using updated pharmacologic principles, clinical recommendations, and evidence-based guidelines.


Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Sciences (PBS)

PBS 601 Cell and Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (4 cr)

This course is designed to provide the pharmacy students with a fundamental understanding of current concepts of cellular and molecular biology, and human biochemistry. Students are provided an overview of eukaryotic carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, cellular signal transduction, biomedical aspects of human nutrition, genetic regulation, the molecular basis of inherited genetic diseases and acquired diseases like cancer, principles of commonly used biotechnologies, drug targets screening, and biopharmaceutical products generation. (Prerequisite: none) Formerly PHAR 621

PBS 602 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I: (The Nervous System) (6 cr)

This course reviews the basic mechanisms of pathophysiology and pharmacology, and then integrates these disciplines through the study of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention of major neurologic, psychiatric, and neuroendocrine diseases/disorders. Following an introduction to normal tissue types and adaptive responses, the course will cover basic etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms; mechanisms of injury will be reviewed; the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS & PNS) are reviewed, major CNS, PNS and neuroendocrine diseases and disorders are covered. Students will learn the mechanism(s) of action and common or serious adverse effects of pharmacological agents and identify appropriate pharmacological treatments or adjust pharmacotherapy in the face of adverse effects. In addition, each student team will research a topic in depth, including a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature, to develop and present a formal case study, given at a level appropriate for an audience of healthcare professionals. To promote information literacy, teams will use systematic PubMed searches using MESH terms to identify and incorporate current literature reviews, guidelines, or other advanced professional sources, and carefully cite the information and sources on their slides.
(Prerequisites: PBS601 & PBS 603) Formerly PHAR 622

PBS 603 Medicinal Chemistry & Physical Pharmacy (5 cr)

The course consists of four components: (1) Fundamentals of Medicinal Chemistry – which introduces the concepts required to understand the principles of Medicinal Chemistry, including drug structure-relationships, prediction of the physico-chemical properties of a drug, basic knowledge of the major pathways of drug metabolism and factors that can contribute to drug-drug interactions; (2) students will be able to predict the solubility, metabolism and pharmacological activity/potency of drugs classes based on the contribution of their functional groups to their structures; (3) the course is designed to provide students with a fundamental understanding of drug assay and the application of chemical and physico-chemical methods of analysis to pharmaceutical substances; (4) the course provides students with a fundamental knowledge of the active constituents of natural medicines with emphasis on the top selling medicinal herbs. (Prerequisite: none) Formerly PHAR 631

PBS 604 Pharmacokinetics (5 cr)

This course focuses on understanding and applying pharmacokinetic principles for optimizing drug dosage. It is divided into three modules: descriptive, quantitative, and pharmacokinetics of special populations. Descriptive pharmacokinetics provides a basic introduction to the key pharmacokinetic principles. This module enables the student to conceptualize principles such as drug bioavailability, distribution, clearance, and excretion. Concepts of drug absorption, metabolism, protein binding, and pharmacokinetic drug interactions will be discussed as well. Quantitative pharmacokinetics covers the mathematical aspects, including the calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters following drug administration and compartment modeling. The third module covers the process of using pharmacokinetic principles to optimize the dose for special populations. (Prerequisite: PBS 605, PBS 611)
Formerly PHAR 633

PBS 605 Pharmaceutics (4 cr)

This course is designed to provide students with the deep understanding of the drug physicochemical properties and its effects on drug formulation and compounding, dosage form as well as an understanding of the interactions between drug delivery systems and biological systems. The course covers the traditional and nontraditional dosage forms as well as drug delivery systems. (Prerequisite: none)

PBS 611 Pharmaceutical Calculations (1 cr)

The course covers pharmaceutical calculations and an overview of drug quality control and regulation. (Prerequisite: knowledge of Algebra)

PBS 701 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology II: Cardiovascular, Diabetes, Thyroid (6 cr)

This course describes and evaluates underlying pathogenesis of major cardiovascular disorders and cardiovascular pharmacology. Upon completion of this course students gain an understanding of major cardiovascular disease states, drug targets based on understanding the pathophysiology, and the mechanism of action and adverse effects of drugs used to treat cardiovascular disorders. Selected topics include: hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, thrombosis, arrhythmia, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure, venous thromboembolism, peripheral arterial diseases, stroke, valvular disease and cardiovascular shocks. In addition, this course describes the pathophysiology of two of the endocrine glands: thyroid and pancreas. Students gain an understanding of underlying pathogenesis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and Diabetes Mellitus, and the mechanism of action and adverse effects of pharmacological classes and agents to treat these endocrine disorders. (Prerequisites: PBS601, PBS602, PBS603, & PBS604) Formerly PHAR 724

PBS 704 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology III (6 cr)

In this course, students will learn to identify drug targets based upon an understanding of the pathophysiology of major diseases of the respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and endocrine system and oncology. Students will learn to recognize the major disorders of these systems, the mechanism of action and adverse effects of pharmacological classes of drugs used in the treatment of these disorders. In addition, students will learn the alternative pharmacological agents for patients who exhibit significant adverse effects to existing pharmacological therapy of these disorders. (Prerequisite: PBS602)

PBS 803 Immunology and Rheumatology (3 cr)

The course will present an overview of the human immune system with the inclusion of both arms of immunity (innate and adaptive). The course will also cover the development and biology of B and T cells as the key players of the adaptive immunity. A special emphasis will then be placed on understanding the different types of autoimmune diseases and the up—to-date strategies for the management of autoimmune diseases. The autoimmune diseases will include TH1, TH2 (e.., Allergy), and TH17 driven mediated diseases. Other topics covered in the course include organ transplantation, passive and active immunity (vaccination), immunodeficiency diseases, AIDS, as well as interactions between the immune system and cancer. Students will be provided with detailed information about immune system, immune cells and tissues, and soluble proteins (cytokines) that orchestrate the function of different cells of the immune system. The specific roles of immune cells and cytokines will be discussed with respect to human diseases. Students will gain an understanding of specific disease state management through the interpretation of basic scientific findings, application of pharmacologic principles, relevant clinical reports/data and evidence-based clinical guidelines. These principles will be emphasized in reading assignments, assigned applications, and in-class discussion. Team-based and evidence-based patient case discussion, as well as patient pharmacological treatment plan recitation will be applied throughout the course. cal. (Prerequisites: PBS601, PBS603, & PBS704) Formerly PHAR 827


Experiential Education (EED) - IPPE

IPP 607 Introduction to Pharmacy Practice (2.5 cr)

This didactic class prepares students for their IPPEs. It covers introductory and contemporary pharmacy issues, practice history, pharmacy organizations and medical terminology, and certificate programs as required by experiential practice experiences. Additionally, students will be introduced to pharmacy law and professionalism issues, and they will be provided with an opportunity to develop introductory knowledge of the top 100 dispensed prescription medications. (Prerequisite: none)

IPP 707 Introduction to Pharmacy Practice Experience: Community Practice (4 cr)

This is an introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) in a community practice setting. This IPPE requires 150 hours on site in a community practice setting. Summer placement is strongly encouraged, and the work schedule suggested should incorporate 4 x 40 hour weeks. (Prerequisites: IPP607)

IPP 807 Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience: Institutional Practice (2 cr)

This is an introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) in an institutional practice setting. This IPPE requires 75 hours on site in this practice setting. (Pre-requisite: IPP607)

IPP 808 Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience: Specialty Practice (2 cr)

This is an introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) in specialty practice setting. This IPPE requires 75 hours on site in this practice setting. (Prerequisite: IPP607)


Experiential Education (EED) - APPE

Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

APPE prerequisite: students must successfully complete all P1-P3 courses before commencing APPEs. Collectively, APPEs provide students with the opportunity to hone the practice, skills, professional judgement, behaviors, attitudes, values, confidence and sense of personal and professional responsibility required for each student to practice independently and collaboratively in an inter-professional, team-based environment.

APP 901 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: Community (6 cr)

In the Community Pharmacy Practice APPE, the student will have an opportunity to practice contemporary pharmacy in a community setting, balancing the changing demands of the healthcare system with those of the retail market. Whether in the large chain or independent pharmacy, activities will include managing the prescription verification process, selecting over-the-counter products for patient-specific needs, patient counseling, and delivering medication therapy management services. (Prerequisite: P4 standing)

APP 902 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: Hospital/Health Systems (6 cr)

Students in the Hospital/Health System APPE will apply knowledge of sterile technique, pharmaceutical calculations, pharmaceutical compounding, medication use evaluation and pharmacokinetic monitoring in activities that enhance the safe and effective use of medications in the hospital environment. (Prerequisite: P4 standing)

APP 903 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: General Medicine (6 cr)

Students in the General Medicine APPE apply critical thinking skills and drug information knowledge to evaluate a patient’s medical information, identify drug therapy problems, design therapeutic interventions, and communicate medication therapy recommendations to other healthcare providers. (Prerequisite: P4 standing)

APP 904 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: Ambulatory Care (6 cr)

In the Ambulatory Care APPE, students apply drug knowledge and communication skills with both patients and other healthcare team members to formulate and implement pharmacotherapy care plans, including monitoring and follow-up to assure the best possible outcomes for their patients. (Prerequisite: P4 standing)

APP 905 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: Specialty I (6 cr)

This rotation allows students to explore areas of interest and focus in pharmacy practice. Specialty APPE offered in the CNUCOP curriculum include (but are not limited to) Infectious Disease, Critical Care, Emergency Medicine, Geriatrics, Pediatrics, Academia, Management, Leadership, Compounding, Home Infusion and Long-term Care. (Prerequisite: P4 standing)

APP 906 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: Specialty II (6 cr)

This rotation allows students to explore areas of interest and focus in pharmacy practice. Specialty APPE offered in the CNUCOP curriculum include (but are not limited to) Infectious Disease, Critical Care, Emergency Medicine, Geriatrics, Pediatrics, Academia, Management, Leadership, Compounding, Home Infusion and Long-term Care. (Prerequisite: P4 standing)

APP 910 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: Seminar 1( .5cr)

This is the first of a required, two-semester sequential course for pharmacy students during their advanced pharmacy practice experiences. This course is designed to: 1) prepare students for practice in the profession of pharmacy, 2) build upon didactic knowledge gained previously in the Doctor of Pharmacy program, and 3) help students become life-long learners through self-assessment and reflection on learning.

APP 911 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience: Seminar 2( .5cr)

This is the second of a required, tow-semester sequential course for pharmacy students during their advanced pharmacy practice experiences. . This course is designed to:
1) prepare students for practice in the profession of pharmacy, 2) build upon didactic knowledge gained previously in the Doctor of Pharmacy program, and 3) help students become life-long learners through self-assessment and reflection on learning.


Longitudinal Practicum Education

PRC 609 Longitudinal Practicum I (1.5 cr)

Longitudinal Practicum I is the first in a series of six practicums designed to provide students with the opportunity to practice essential skills, and use knowledge learned in didactic courses to build and develop these skills in a sequential and integrated way. Longitudinal I provides a hands-on introduction to bench-top pharmaceutical compounding and calculations. Practicum I will provide an overview of the value of compounded dosage forms, and their limitations and relationship to FDA-approved drugs. Some insight will be given to the use of compounding pharmacies for the preparation of clinical trial materials, and various compounded preparations will be made. (Prerequisite: none)

PRC 610 Longitudinal Practicum II (1 cr)

Longitudinal Practicum II will provide students with a hands- on introduction to intravenous (IV) sterile compounding calculations and regulations, aseptic techniques, and personal safety measures using the sterile IV hood. In addition, students will learn how to perform manual blood pressure and blood glucose readings and to counsel patients on their manual blood pressure and blood glucose results, at a skill sufficient to partake in a community health screening environment. The course will be comprised of a total of 11 sessions over 11 weeks, including a total of two practical sessions and one practical assessment session for aseptic Technique/IV Sterile Compounding and one Immunization

Training Certification full day event. (Prerequisites: IPP607 & PRC609)

PRC 709 Longitudinal Practicum III (2 cr)

The third in the series this Practicum will enable students to apply their knowledge of pharmacotherapy to clinical scenarios through the use of an oral clinical exam. Basic laboratory elements will be introduced and skill sets related to conducting MTM/motivational interviewing will be further refined. Students will also have the opportunity to enhance their oral communication skills through patient counseling exercises and debates on topics related to psychiatry and/or neurology. Professionalism, including behaviors and attitudes that are consistent with being a health care professional, will be reinforced. (Co-requisite: CAS705)

PRC 710 Longitudinal Practicum IV (2 cr)

This Practicum will provide students with an opportunity to develop and practice clinical skills through the assessment of case reports laboratory findings, pharmacologic principles and evidence based guidelines. Students will participate in various workshops, which were first introduced in Practicum
III. Journal Clubs, SOAP Notes and Care Plans will all be revisited, using various cardiovascular, endocrine, and pulmonologic disease states as a platform. Students will learn to demonstrate clinical skills relevant to providing patient care in simulated learning activities with other health care professional students. Evidence- based patient case discussion and patient therapeutic treatment plan recitation will be developed throughout the practicum. Students will be expected to continue to demonstrate the professional skills, attitudes, and values necessary to enter a clinical service. (Co- requisite: CAS706)

PRC 809 Longitudinal Practicum V (2 cr)

The fifth Lab Practicum will provide students with the ability to simulate real life pharmacy inpatient and outpatient experiences and challenges in a structured environment. This includes the Advanced Pharmacy Simulation (APPS) Lab which provides hands-on community pharmacy experiences, and our NeehrPerfect software that simulates an inpatient EMR system. Students will have opportunities to review patient cases using disease states from previous or concurrent pharmacotherapeutic course topics such as cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, neuropsychology, geriatrics and infectious disease. (Prerequisite: CAS 703; Co- requisites: CAS 805)

PRC 810 Longitudinal Practicum VI (2 cr)

The sixth and final Practicum will provide students with practice in nutritional calculations, MTM review of cases using specific topics such as renal, gastronenterologic and oncologic disease from this semester’s pharmacotherapeutic course. In particular, this longitudinal practicum will build on skills developed in previous didactic courses and practicums in order to optimize personal performance going into the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). Students will be provided with an opportunity to participate in an additional Inter-Professional Education (IPE) Simulation exercise; and there will be team-based topic presentations to solidify communication skills. Overall, students will be provided with sufficient exposure to learn and practice their skills in the area of leadership, MTM, patient care and inter-professional practice. (Prerequisite: CAS703; Co-requisite: CAS806)


Elective Courses

P2 and P3 students must choose one from a number of elective topics that will be offered each academic year. P2 elective courses (ELC 7XX) are offered during the Spring semester and P3 elective courses (ELC 8XX) are offered in the Fall semester. Topics vary each year. Students may complete an approved an Independent Study in lieu of an elective course offered. Completion of a minimum of 4 credits of elective coursework is required. P2 elective offerings will be distributed as an addendum.

ELC 750/850 Independent Study (1-2 cr)

The purpose of independent study is to provide interested students with an opportunity to collaborate with faculty on research or specialty projects. The interested student meets with the appropriate faculty member, and the student and the faculty determine the nature and scope of the project to be completed. In collaboration the student and the faculty member design the course, the scope of the project, project specific assignments, methods of evaluation, timeline, and expectations. Prior to starting the project/course, the student and the faculty member complete the independent study form and submit the completed form to the appropriate Department Chair for approval. Once approved by the appropriate Department Chair, the completed form is subsequently submitted to the Office of Academic Affairs for final approval. Once final approval has been granted, the form will be sent to the Office of the Registrar to officially enroll the student in the course. (Prerequisites: P2/P3 standing and minimum 2.80 cumulative GPA; Faculty, Department Chair, and Office of Academic Affairs approval)

ELC 756 Disc & Devel of Drugs for IBD & Rheumatoid Arthritis (2 cr)

The course will focus on drug development and discovery approaches for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The first block of classes will focus on pre-clinical models used to discover drugs for IBD. A special emphasis will be placed on animal models of IBD. Clinical protocols for both Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease patients will also be reviewed. The second block of classes will focus on drug discovery for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of various drugs will be discussed, including DMARD’s. Clinical trial methodology for RA will also be discussed. The course will utilize both relevant literature references, as well as real-life experiences of the instructor. Students will be expected to actively participate by way of group presentations, as well as each class participant composing a final drug discovery/development project. Pre-Reqs PBS601, PBS603, PBS602, PBS604, & CAS703.

ELC 761 Pharmacogenomics & Genetics (2 cr)

The Pharmacogenomics (PGx) and Genetics course is designed to provide pharmacy students with a fundamental understanding of current concepts and application of genetics and genomics in light of the relevance and the scope of pharmacy practice. The course is designed with a learner-centered perspective, leading step-wise through introductory content emphasizing PGx research design including utilization of key knowledge from the human genome and genome projects and Big "Omics" data such as genomic, transcriptomics, and proteomic approaches to patient care. Students are provided an application of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and the value of phenotyping/genotyping in guiding drug therapy of individual patients. Examples of clinical applications will be included and will examine the relationship between PGx and personalized medicine. This course uses a combination of lectures, discussions of assigned literature, projects, and student-led presentations. Pre-req PBS604, PBS701, PBS704, & CAS705. Equivalence: ELC861.

ELC 762 Pharmacists in Public Health (2 cr)

Offered as a Hybrid-Online Course

This is a hybrid course, combining online learning modules and in-class learning experiences. This elective course introduces, develops, and integrates the skills and knowledge needed for student pharmacists who choose to explore the realm of public health through applying their unique pharmacy backgrounds and interests. Throughout the course, the learning modules are designed to illustrate how pharmacy would fit into the greater scheme of health care from a public health perspective, to demonstrate how pharmacists can contribute in inter-professional efforts on enhancing the quality of healthcare services delivered, to integrate clinical practice and population health in pharmacists' work, and to identify public health efforts of which pharmacists are already a part. A large portion of this course is devoted to program planning, implementation, execution, and evaluation, preparing student pharmacists in their future leadership roles on the healthcare team. To enhance students' skills, evidence- based practice will be discussed and applied. Lastly, journal article analyses will be conducted to familiarize students with translating research results into real-world practice to promote population health management and practice.

ELC 764 Principles of Clinical Pharmacology (2 cr) (Part 1)

Offered as an Online Course

The Principles of Clinical Pharmacology Part 1 elective course will provide students with an overview of clinical pharmacology and its real-world usage. Topics relating to the following subject areas will be covered; pharmacokinestics, drugs metabolism and transport, drug therapy in special populations. This is an online course that will run for 10 weeks. Each week, students will be expected to review assigned you tube videos that are presented by world renowned experts in each subject area and are freely available through the NIH Clinical Center. Students will also be expected to participate in weekly online discussion boards as well as complete weekly online open book quizzes. There will be an online open book final exam at the end of the course that must be completed/submitted prior to the end of the semester.

ELC 765 Principles of Clinical Pharmacology (2 cr) (Part 2)

Offered as an Online Course

The Principles of Clinical Pharmacology Part 2 elective course, a continuation of the Part 1 elective course, will provide students with an overview of clinical pharmacology and its real-world usage through the review of the following topics; Assessment of Drug Effects, Drug Discovery and Development, Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacotherapy.

This is an online course that will run for 6 weeks. Each week, students will be expected to review assigned YouTube videos that are presented by world renowned experts in each subject area and are freely available through the NIH Clinical Center. Students will also be expected to participate in weekly online discussion boards as well as complete weekly online open book quizzes. There will be an online open book final exam at the end of the course that must be completed/submitted prior to the end of the course.

ELC 766 Special Pops. Pharmacotherapy: Preg, Peds, & Ger. (2 cr)

Special Populations Pharmacotherapy: A Focus on Pregnant, Pediatric, & Geriatric Patients will focus on common disease states affecting the pediatric, geriatric, and pregnant populations and their management. These specific patient populations require special consideration as a result of their varying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles. Pathophysiological and pharmacological principles of each disease state and their respective treatments will be reviewed. The course will be based on team-led topic presentations and in-class discussion to enhance students' knowledge base and improve oral and written communication skills. Each team will be responsible for presenting assigned topics (pregnant, pediatric, or geriatric topic) and creating an in-class application exercise for each topic. Additionally, each student who is not presenting will be responsible for developing questions to ask each presenting team. Class participation points will be based on student engagement with in-class applications and presentation questions. Pre-reqs: PBS602, PBS603, PBS701, & CAS705. (Equivalent to PHAR781AI
"Special Populations: A Focus on Pediatric and Geriatric Pharmacotherapy")

ELC 851 Demystifying Formulary Decisions: An Evidence Based Approached (2 cr)

This course will focus on common disease states affecting the pediatric and geriatric population and their management. These specific patient populations require special consideration as a result of their varying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Pathophysiological and pharmacological principles of each disease state and their respective treatments will be reviewed. The course will be based on team-led topic presentations and class discussions to enhance students’ knowledge base and improve oral and written communication skills. (Prerequisite: P3 standing)

ELC 853 Preventing the Misuse & Abuse of Prescription Medications (2 cr)

This course is designed to raise awareness among the students about the misuse and abuse of prescription medications. Students will develop knowledge and understanding of drugs and substances of abuse, how to promote appropriate use of controlled substances, and minimize their abuse and diversion. (Prerequisite: P3 standing)

ELC 859 Postgraduate Pharmacy Residency and Fellowship Training Preparation (2 cr)

The post-graduate pharmacy residency and fellowship training preparation elective is an interactive course designed to provide students with the tools and skill sets necessary to obtain a residency or a fellowship position following graduation. This course will introduce students to the basic elements of residency and fellowship, identifying programs based on one's interest, developing application materials (CV, letter of intent), and preparing for Personal Placement Service (PPS) and/or onsite reviews (interview preparation, mock interviews, and topic presentation). In addition, students preparing for a residency will gain the skills necessary to navigate the application and residency match processes and students preparing for a fellowship will gain the skills necessary to remain a competitive candidate for onsite interviews following PPS. (Prerequisite: P3 standing)

ELC 861 Pharmacogenomics and Genetics (2 cr)

The Pharmacogenomics (PGx) and Genetics course is designed to provide pharmacy students with a fundamental understanding of current concepts and application of genetics and genomics in light of the relevance and the scope of pharmacy practice. The course is designed with a learner- centered perspective, leading step-wise through introductory content emphasizing PGx research design including utilization of key knowledge from the human genome and genome projects and Big "Omics" data such as genomic, transcriptomics, and proteomic approaches to patient care. Students are provided an application of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and the value of phenotyping/genotyping in guiding drug therapy of individual patients. Examples of clinical applications will be included and will examine the relationship between PGx and personalized medicine. This course uses a combination of lectures, discussions of assigned literature, projects, and student-led presentations. (Prerequisite: P3 standing; PBS604; PBS701; PBS704; CAS705; & CAS706)

ELC 863 Frontiers in Translational Medicine: From Bench to Bedside (2 cr)

Translational medicine is the practice of transferring scientific knowledge "from bench to bedside" (B2B), translational medicine builds on basic research advances and uses them to develop new therapies or medical procedures. Translational medicine transforms scientific discoveries arising from laboratory, clinical or population studies into new clinical tools and applications that improve human health. This course provides students with insight into state-of-the art research and research application in the medical field. The emphasis is the dynamic relationship between laboratory research and bedside application with the purpose of providing optimal patient therapies. Students will learn how research results guide clinical therapies, and vice versa. This course will provide real-life examples of translational medicine practices and give students exposure to analyzing and developing diagnostic tools and treatment protocols. Students will be required to actively participate in individual journal clubs and develop a review of literature presentations. Finally, each team will write a review literature on a selective topic appropriate for peer-review publication. (Prerequisite: P3 standing and PBS 601)

ELC 865 Advanced Topics in Diabetes (2 cr)

This hybrid course combines online learning modules and in- class learning experiences. Students are expected to be in class for a number of live sessions and the final exam/final presentation. This elective course introduces students to advanced topics in diabetes, such as Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials for Diabetes Medications, Technology in the Diabetes World, Psychosocial Aspect of Diabetes Management, etc. The online learning modules integrate the fundamental learning content and the application of main concepts with students' reflection. Throughout the course, the learning modules are designed to enhance students' competency in each of the chosen advanced topics with opportunities in class to further consolidate and integrate the learned information through clinical cases.
(Prerequisite: CAS 706)

ELC 867 Pediatrics Pharmacology (2 cr)

This course is designed to familiarize students with pediatric specific disease states, pathophysiology, diagnosis as well as safe and effective drug use to optimize medication therapy in children up to 18 years of age. Importance will be placed on the pharmacist’s role in individualizing drug therapy through proper product selection, dosage calculations, patient counseling and patient monitoring.
(Prerequisite: P3 standing)